Shanghai Daily, another Melamine-tainted milk scandal in China, Jan 6, 2010

Sadly but truly, another contaminated milk scandal is here.

On May, 2008, the first report about the poisoned milk was exposed by Lanzhou Daily, a Chinese newspaper in Gansu Province. After the rest of that year, there was a long period of reporting and commenting of this issue, almost thousands of reports in Chinese media. There were many strong blame on those criminals who use the toxic chemicals in order to improve their profits.

“Those milk traders who did this, they’d better know nothing about what they have done.”

Meanwhile, because of the national scandal, the Western media also reported about it.

“The official death toll was 265, but some Chinese media reports — soon suppressed — said it may have been much higher.”

According to Time. Sep.23 2008

Apparently, the fresh pain of losing family in the memories of Chinese people had not gone completely. A new scandal about milk safety are coming back again.

On December 31, 2009, the Chinese government-run Xinhua news agency announced that melamine was found in milk produced by the Shanghai Panda company.

Food safety news, Jan 6, 2010

Why this scandal has came for a second time after only one and a half year? Is there any deep rooted problem that can not be solved immediately?

This Shanghai Panda issue is really ironic to local and even the whole nation’s food security departments. What’s the problem with Chinese milk productions?

What even worse?

According to Guardians report, the new toxic milk case was kept in secret for almost a year. Which is another stunning fact for Chinese consumers.  The Shanghai Panda issue was again hidden by local government for 8 months! Chinese people are not so forgetfulness and forgiveness. Many experts expect that the milk industry in China will be in a second downturn in a long term.

Except the government’s fault, I think there was a deeper hole of China’s milk industry- the corporate greed.

And one more ironical issue about this scandal, actually, from Jun, 2009, Chinese government enacted a new Food Safety Law which were promised to keep a safer market of food. However, this Shanghai Panda issue has straightly told us that the regulations didn’t work well.

What would be the result the second wave of  food scandals? Another new Food Safety Law?

I do hope there will not another new but useless promise be made.


Pulic servant has became the most popular occupation choice for graduates. By Tengxun Blog.

“Who can pass through the test of public servant in Central government department will be rewarded 60,000 yuan(RMB);

Who can pass through the test of public servant in Provincal government department in Guangxi will be rewarded 30,000 yuan(RMB)……”

Nanguo Morning Daily, Jan 3rd, 2010

This is a prize system of Gongcheng country for youths(Because the age is limited in the public servant tests.) starting from the new year.

The public servant tests are the only one that have prize regulations. Apparently, it is absolutely not fair to other occupation tests. In addition, there has a big difference between the prizing policy of “top in the examination to college” and this ones.

The former one is aimed to prize those who contributed to the education workers. However, the latter one is definitely about political interests.

These kind of prizing is exactly like the investment of stock. The leaders of Gongcheng Country are investing on the potential promising stock, that would have political relationships with them.

In my opinion, this action also can be understood as a kind of bribing. These prize is the money for pleasing their future leaders. Take an example of “offices representing of Beijing all around China”, these departments was gradually cancelled by central government because they found that those offices had big problems with local leaders relating to bribery.

It is believed that this kind of rewarding system would soon be cancelled after focus by media. But most of local leaders have a deep-rooted thought of keeping good relationships with upper leaders. This kind of thought can not be uprooted immediately. It needs more effort to erase those phenonmenons.

The video is about men who used to be  child soldiers in Sierra Leone civil war.

As Blaine Harden wrote in the New York Times, “in countries like Sierra Leone, where peacekeeping demands a willingness to wage war, Democratic Man has three stark choices if he wants to salve his conscience: Fight, pay someone else to fight, or stay home and wait for an easier peace to come.

Apparently, the super powers have taken the second choice under the majority situations. In the eight years of Sierra Leone civil war, there had peacekeeping troops sent by the United Nations with low level medical and other elementary equipments. Such conflicts like Sierra Leone civil war, did not draw attentions of Western powers because of less and even non-coverage.

The cause of disregarding human rights in those issues have two major aspects.

  • First, the politicians of the super powers decide not engaging into a conflict or war with nothing interests of themselves. For example, the Africa Crisis Response Initiative was launched by the Clinton administration in 1998 on the purpose enhancing African peacekeeping and humanitarian relief capacity, according to the White House release on the ACRI. But the efforts are far more than enough. In consequence, the media coverage which cost in a large amount of fares is relatively small on those issues.
  • The second reason is the chain action of the small coverage. As the media do not informing any stories of the Sierra Leone civil war, like the CNN did not send a camera for its ceasefire in 2002, the audience would have no idea of what is happening.

Nobody would be informed that the children in Sierra Leone was trained into murders who can kill people for three days without blinking; the old women and little girls were raped by cold-blooded soldiers. If the horrible images could not be transferred by media, the journalists, then no one knew about it. The basic duty for the journalists-informing a broad audience- was not shouldered.

These two reasons interact on each others. And what the journalists can do is investing more efforts on stories in the war zone concerning significant human rights issues. Small coverage is better than nothing. In a result, the more efforts are put into, the more attentions would be draw, and the more interventions would be taken by government and the entire society.

A restaurant in Venice was closed because of the heavy snow.

I just came back here in my warm dorm yesterday, the European trip had a lot of fun, but still too cold for me.

The snow storm in Venice, and foggy midnight in Paris made the travel harder than I expected. However, I’ve made it! A seven days trip in Paris, Pise, Venice and Rome.

The St. Peter Plazza under the sunshine.

BUT! The weather I stayed in Rome is fantastic! Blue sky, warm sunshine, although the degree was still unpleasant, the sunshine was great enough for my traveling.

I spent three days in Italy, which my friend told me later that, I was so lucky to travel by Euro star on Dec. 19, because the next day the transportation system stopped due to bad weather conditions.

Well, the other most impressive part excluding my visit of interesting places is waiting for delayed flight. Actually, the flight was very price attractive, but not as the timing. I waited for three flights during 3 days, which almost costed me more than 6 hours in total. When I spent the boring time in the airport waiting area, I watched the Italian news which played again and again during 3 hours. Apparently, they don’t have many news to report except the weather and Christmas shopping. It was understandable.

Because this seven days trip, which isolate me from internet and almost other media, I don’t have sources to grasp information.

I think It’s really a urgent to catch up the news happening in UK in the last week.

The Conpenhagen conference has closed yesterday after two weeks negotiation. But disappointingly, as Xinhua News agency said,

“The two week-long Copenhagen conference concluded Sturday in the Danish capital after producing a non legally binding document on climate change.”

Obviously, the conference has not have any treaties be approved by all the countries legally. In another words, there was not a legally binding treaty through this conference but the conference decision is just a non-bingding accord. This decision disappointed the international society, especially those small island nations.

On the plenary session, this document insists the responsibilities of developed and developing countries, as we know, the dual-track mechanism-UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol.

This document identified the common but differentiated responsibilities of developed countries and developing contries.

Actually, the international society is not surprised by the outcomes. Because:

Any treaties that agreed by all the countries mean more than the interests of people who are suffering from the climate change. But more realistic and political, it is a fight between country and country, hundreds of interest groups. Any decision it made might make a huge influence on industries which are related with the richest people in the world.

The media showed their incredible focus on this issue, which is called as “the most important conference till now”. However, as many experts expected, the Copenhagen conference is just a comma for us.

Look over the things I wrote before is quite interesting.

Just like this: Why do you want to be a journalist?

Firstly, my ambition to be an excellent journalist was inspired by my father, who is a leader in a local TV station. From childhood I have admired and respected professionals in the field of reporting because my father’s hard work, strong sense of responsibility for news reporting, and his organizational talent made a deep impression on me. I was obviously deeply influenced by my father’s example since then. After receiving college journalism education, my ideal for being a trustworthy journalist is not frightened by unpredictable difficulties and temptations that a reporter might have to confront with. In contrast, my motivation to be a journalist with penetrating insights and outstanding analytical skills is stronger gradually.

Secondly, this career itself attracts me to devote myself into it. As a journalist, you have access to the newest news; every new day as a reporter, the people you meet, the things you touch, are totally different from yesterday. And surprisingly but actually, what you write today will be the history of tomorrow. As a journalist, you have access to uncovered stories; the intriguing story you report to audiences may bring about significant social influences, even changing regulations and laws of a nation. As a journalist, you have access to hidden truth; exposing fake and finding truth are the ultimate pursue of journalistic career. Therefore, I want to be a journalist, to enjoy the life with newest news, uncovered stories and hidden truth.

Overall, to be a trustworthy journalist with humane spirit and proficient skill is my future career target and I will try my best to be an outstanding journalist.

After two months’ study here, something changed in my initial motive to be a journalist, but most things are still there, do not move a bit.

A Chinese apprentice was working in the farmland in Japan. By Wang yong, a journalism of Yangzi Daily.

A murder happened in Japan let us thinking about a question: Is it that the labour exportation from China to Japan a win-win system? And what is the problem of this system to lead to those tragedies?

“A Chinese apprentice, suspected of killing a Japanese couple who employed him hanged himself in Japan today.

The police believe that he had an argument with the couple and their niece. The murder raised another heated dispute about the abuse of the foreign apprentice system in Japan.” Xinhua News Agency reported.

Wang baoquan, who is 22 years old, was deployed to rural part of Japan as a farming assistant this June. The couple’s neighbour said, recently, he heard the husband of this couple shouting at Wang loudly; asking him to work even though Wang didn’t feel well.

A law professor from Qinghua University, Wang zhenmin said, the abuse of cheap labour as part of Japan’s foreign apprentice system was blamed as the cause of this bloody murder.

In recent years, Japanese agricultural labour has declined to a very low level which may lead to foreign apprentices being exploited. According to a report of the Japanese Labour Department, the number of foreign apprentices has increased to 160,000 this year.( Chinese News Net

Many Chinese young people who work in the fields are paid much less than the lowest salary in Japan.

An apprentice said to Overseas Chinese daily news, a Chinese newspaper, that he could only earn 6 pence for 18 hours’ work in a textile factory. One month ago, five Chinese apprentices ignored their Japanese boss’s threats, suing him for forcing them work overtime with a poor salary.

Because of the hard-work, no Japanese apprentice would want to stay even though they can get a much higher payment than the Chinese worker for the same work.

The statistics from a report of Japanese officials suggested that the situation is getting worse that nearly 10,000 foreign apprentices couldn’t cope with the heavy work and escaped from their work places last year.

At the moment, the first year of foreign apprentice has no legal protections. But according to Japanese Labour Ministry, they had already proposed a change in labour law in order to improve the human rights of foreign apprentices.

HIV virus is spreading amongst gay community faster than others. The increasing number of HIV positive gay men has raised the attention of both the gay community  and religious groups. Gay men are not fighting with HIV alone.

According to UNAids report, the number of people who newly infected with HIV declined by 17% from 2000 to 2007. However, the HIV diagnoses among gay community rose by 74% in the last eight years.

London has a considerable population of gay men.  HPA said 42% of all people in the uK that were diagnosed with HIV are in London.  In the central of London, Soho district, here the pubs and clubs, are gathering the gay men who have higher possibilities to be HIV positive.

On the first of December, the World Aids Day, many volunteers are fund-raising money on the street. Most of them are from specialized organizations helping HIV community.

The increasing number of gay men affecting HIV is not only concerned by gays, but also social workers and religious groups.

James Matazazzo is working as a HIV expert in the churchs of Britain and America. As he said, the gay community and church are both hard to reach each other, mostly because of the stigma in the whole society, especially in religious group. However, they were trying to engage the gay men into the religious groups through campaign.

Yinming Li was eating a rice dish in the canteen of the University of Westminster

Yinming Li, a Chinese girl, studying in the University of Westminster who has been struggling between Chinese low-fat dish and    Western rich-fat cuisine.

She has been studying in UK for almost 4 years since she first came in 2006. The first impression of her is very tall and slim as many people thinking, but   not as herself.

I like some Western food, such as cheese, butter. But the problem is they are so fat!” She found that although sometimes she knew the cheese with bread was fat, but could not help it.

She moved away from the family in China and started cooking for herself, which added to her “downfall”.

She just kept eating and eating for a while until get 15lb in 2008 summer break.

“My sister laughed at me when we were on a bus in China, she said that I can feel there is no enough space after you get on the bus.” She recognized that she was never overweight in UK, but the situation was totally different in China.

After then, she began to make plans on diet.

“I cannot listen to others when I am in UK, everyone said you were so slim, there were no reason for you on diet.” She started examining the calories on the package of each items. Afterwards, she successfully lost 12lb in these two years.

“I’ve gained another seven pound after the summer break.” She said every year she would go back home for three months during the summer holiday.

What she most misses about China is not only because of her family, but also due to the healthy style of Chinese cuisine.

“I can lose weight without counting calories of every dish.  I’m so happy with Chinese food.” She was telling me while eating a rice dish – the only oriental food can be found in canteen- as lunch.

She has been cooking Chinese dishes at home for one month. “It’s the most simple way for me to keep weight.” As she said, she had found the effective way to be on diet. “You must have breakfast, and be careful about the calories for lunch, and don’t eat hydrocarbon but only fruit as dinner.”

Obviously she has been an expert of being on diet after four years struggling with up-and- down weight.

Three prominent Chinese universities have moved up in the world rankings, according to The Times Higher Education magazine.

Tsinghua University has stepped up to 49 from 56 this year, the University of Hong Kong now ranks 26, and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology is at 39.

There are five Chinese universities in the world top 100 universities on the list.

British and American Universities still dominate the world top 100 rankings.

But 16 Asian universities are now in the list – up from 14.

Meanwhile, the number of American universities slip down to 36, compared to 42 last year.

Ben Sowter, a researcher at QS said: “The growing presence and impact of Asian and European institutions on the world higher education stage.”

The total number of Asian universities in the world top 100 rises from 14 to 16. And European universities gain three more on the list than 2008.

The world rankings are based on surveys of academics, the views of employers, ratios of students to staff and the number of international students.

  • First question:

Should journalists decide for themselves how best to report racism and intolerance?

Sure they should. But the reality is, as a journalist, first, you are also a citizen of a country, which means you particular background due to race, nationality, and also bias. Those background may affect your report unconsciously which is out of your control, but as I think, to be a good journalist, a journalist should know the way that can keep the balance of their report as the issue referred to sensitive issues.

  • Second question:

A UNICEF report in 2005 described journalists as ‘champions of human rights‘. How realistic is that description?

Actually, it’s  not one hundred percent right. There is a tricky and well known example that US vietnam war, it took several years, untill 1967, the American media began to report critically on the War. There is a term “geographic bias”, which means a journalist will surely support the side of his or her country. But in 1967, the geographic bias of the US media was almost entirely reversed all the media questioned whether the US fighting a moral war.

It is hard to say if journalist is a champion of human rights. In China, a journalist can help those people who be treated unfairly of some organizations or even government, but  you need to be particularly cautious about the way you reporting. Some political sensitive issues you can never be talked about, for example, tian an men campaign, there is a website called June 4th human right, it is a Chinese website which specially reporting the issue of human rights and help those people whose right been offenced. I just know that, the man, Huang qi,  who launched the website was sentenced for three years be charged for violating state secret laws.

  • Third question:

How sensitive should journalists be to cultural differences?

As I think independence is particularly difficult to achieve when journalists are reporting a conflict in which their own country is a party. This is also mentioned in the lecture last week.

And I think the situation is not only happened in country like Afghanistan or China, those countries have less human rights, or the freedom of reporting. I just learned that US information strategists learned the lessons of Vietnam well and adopted the model of press control used by the British during the Falklands War.

Here come the annual Halloween Day as a traditional holiday for British people on 31 Oct. It is a cheerful day for all children in the city of London particularly, as they can go and knock neighbours’ doors, playing “trick or treat”.

All the neighbours would like to give out the candies before their windows are stoned or painted.  Sometimes if the neighbour does not give a treat, naughty kids may play a trick on them.

British websites have been discussing the trouble caused by children playing tricks on their neighbours when they were not given treats. Celebrating Halloween politely is still concerning many Britons.

Jack o’ Lantern – carved pumpkin – is another very important symbol for Halloween. People can buy a pumpkin in local supermarket, then carve any patterns they like, mostly a ghost face, and put a candle inside.

The Britons celebrate Halloween as a big day. Since early October, the decorations and costumes specially for Halloween Day can be found in many markets, such as Jack o’ Lantern, costumes of ghosts, witches, vampires and so on. Many places of interests hold events on the day too. For example, London Eye was set to make a magic and horror story about itself and serve a special flight.

Halloween Day is apparently not only celebrated by kids, but also party animals. Most parties on this day are themed as horror and funny, young person dress and do make-ups like ghosts, anything as thrilling as possible. When you wake up in the morning on 1 November, I bet you will see many young “ghosts” just walking back home.

There is no law or legislation particularly that made for media system in China, but the rights and obligations are mentioned in other several laws, such as “Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China” which was enacted on 30 Aug in 2007.

“Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China”  concerns about the issue happened unexpectedly and suddenly, and may harm or threat the public interests, such as natural disaster, accident, public heath affair and social safety event.

It regulates the system that municipal government should report to provincial government, then to national government, if an emergency happened.


The formal publication of this law experienced nearly four years through great dispute from society and law maker- National People’s Congress.

The cause of this law’s birth is owing to the world focus issue in 2003- the SARS virus widely spread in China. Because Beijing Mayor failed to informed the media and public that the virus was spreading in Beijing, and he also did not take efficient measures to stop virus spreading. He and the Minister of Health of Beijing government both resigned to assume responsibilities. Learned from the lesson, the Chinese government began to legislate for responding emergency since May 2003.

Its “Draft” version was published in 2006 which draw extensive attentions among media and public. This law regulates the practice of responding emergency.It mainly concerned about the obligations of Chinese government coping with emergencies.

This law claimed that “Chinese government should publish the information of the process of emergency accurately, immediately and uniformly according to referred regulations”. The reporting right of media which was firstly involved in Chinese law, stepped big forward for the freedom of Chinese media system. While there was still a lot of obstacles of reporting freely in China.

Meanwhile, which was unfortunate for Chinese media, it mentioned in the law that “All the emergencies should be in the charge of local government, who arrange the publishment of information.”

As it said, which means the right of information publishment is in the hand of local government. If the government did not want to publish the death toll in a coal incident, they could stop the press publish the number or restrain the journalists from reaching the sources.

In “Draft” also regulated that “media can not obeying the rules to publish any information by their own”.

Professor Jiang mingan, deputy of Constitution reseach centre of Beijing University said two expressions in this Draft had problems, one was the “rules”, another was “by their own”.

Here “the rules” are described vaguely, there were still a lot of questions left, such as who will make the rules, what kind of rules they are. “The rules” cannnot be referered or  confirmed. For example, when the a coal accident occurred in Shanxi Province, and the provincial government regulated temporarily that the press should not report the real death toll or even publish nothing to the public.

Another problem is the expression of “by their own”. There is no way for every press to be censored by government on every published news. In results of it, they only can be censored after news being published. If the information was investigated as fake news, the editor or the journalist of press could be punished then.

Compare to “Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China Draft” describing as above, there are several modifications in “Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China”.

It deleted the clause that that “media can not obeying the rules to publish any information by their own”, which make kind of improvements of Chinese media’s right of emergency reporting.

Case and Analysis

However, the disadvantages of “Emergency Response Law” were revealing in some public issues, such as Poisoned milk scandal happened from March 2008.

Take Shi jiazhuang government as an example, the capital city of Hebei Province.  The Shi jiazhuang government received the report from Sanlu dairy company about the tainted milk on 2nd Aug. But Shi government did not report to superior government till 9 Sep. While there was also no report about this issue in Hebei Province, untill another local newspaper in Gansu Province reported on 8 Sep but the name of the company was not mentioned.

Obviously, Shi government tried to hide the facts from public. The manner they dealed with the issue was very usual among most of the Chinese governments. This is also why during a long time, and even now Chinese media are used to report good news but not bad news, especially before a vital historical event- 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

If Shi government publish the news to media ealier, there would not be like this- four infants were dead; more than 6000 infants were suffered from kidney problems to different extents; more than 160 dairy companies were examined tainted.

To analyse the reasons that why Chinese media did not expose the scandal immediately are contributed to the loophole of Chinese government system, Chinese media system, and also the “Emergency Response Law”.

In this law, Chinese government takes the initiative of the whole information. Even if a newspaper or TV station obtained the source of the scandal, the editor would not publish it without concerning many factors, such as public influence and personal responsibility. And the most important point is that, a story can be spiked as easily as you can imagine under the pressure from government and censorship.

There is much more pressure than we can imagined to investigate and reveal a nagative story in a particular period, such as the National Day and Olympic Games.

For intance, Caijing magazine is a influential magazine focusing on investigative stories. In this October, the whole editorial staff of Caijing resigned mainly because of the dispute over self-censorship and control, as the Guardians reported. (“Power struggle looms at China’s most influential magazine”, Jonanthan Watts, 14 Oct 2009)

In fact, media do not have much freedom in terms of reporting nagative news in China. Although in this law Chinese media’s right to report is clearly regulated, still the way that information sent from governments to media does not work.


In order to improve the efficient of this law, and promote the democracy process of Chinese society, as I think, it is necessary for Chinese government to amend this law.

Here I will give some opinions about the modifications of this law.

First and foremost, the information about the emergency should not only be under control of the local government, but also be notified by local and state media. The law could regulate that as soon as the local government informed of an incident or affair, they should suggested to have a news press publishing the current situation about the issue. If the local government was confirmed that not publish the information immediately, anyone who related to the retardation would be punished or even dismissed. Because of the tradition way that Chinese government handling the bad news is so deep-rooted, the law must take strict regulations on prompt publication. For example, the governor and officer who neglecting their duty of it, they may face to a large amount of fine fee or job loss.  Although the law regulates that if any governor who obey the law would be fined from 50,000 Rmb to 100,000 Rmb, still compare to their one-year salary which could be 200,000 Rmb, the fine is relatively not too heavy to them.

In another way, National Congress can establish a special department for emergency information. This department can keep an eye on all the local government, making sure that they are on duty of publishing

the information.

Second, the law could provide a specific plan as instruction for local government dealing with the emergency, which is not mentioned clearly and definitely in “Emergency Response Law”. Take other country as an good example, in the emergency response law of California in America, it make detailed and accurate instructions that media should take what kinds of responsibilities for a case, including information pulication and public feedback.

Detailed the law into different division of different affairs would be definitely useful, not only for the government to follow, but also for the public to oversee whether governor taking the responsibility or not. It can make any punishment more effectively and transparently. As I think, detailed this law could especially stressed on the instruction of media and internal government in order to improve the functions  of press which always influence significantly on the development of emergency, and cooperation between the government and media.

Basically, the openess of Chinese media is  not well-developed as the government take too much control of it. In order to promote the progress of Chinese democracy and improve the human rights of media workers, it is not only about modifying the “Emergency Response Law”, but the freedom of the whole media. The Chinese must not learn from another SARS or Poisoned Milk affairs that caused thousands people suffered, even dead because of information retardations.

Latest two weeks, more than 100 people died  in series of anti-government violence in Pakistan.

Particularly after the gunmen attack  on 15 Oct, the tensions between Pakistani government and Taliban were growing while Pakistani military started offensive against Taliban stronghold in South Waziristan on 17 Oct.

Meanwhile, US also took measures to support Pakistan. Obama signed 7.5 billion dollars aid bill for Pakistan. And Chinese government declared its position that back other form of help but non-military.

BBC news video report  is taken as sample for television outlets, the Guardian is the sample for newspapers outlets, and China Daily online is the sample for online media.

From these three outlets, I collected all the reports about the Pakistan attack issue from 15 Oct to 17 Oct in order to compare them in three aspects, which respectively are news agenda (how the story is moved on),  sources(who are interviewed), and forms of expression (space given, airtime.etc).


Firstly, these three outlets, due to their different platforms and target audiences, have obvious differences from each others on how they present the story. Their characteristics are as followings:

  • BBC news (TV)

BBC is a professional UK media which has wide and great audiences from home and aboard. BBC news as a TV channel specially focus on news all around the world.

On 16 Oct, there is a BBC news report that I found on BBC website reporting the chaos probably after two suicide bomber attack a  police station in Pashawar, Pakistan (“Deadly bomb shakes Pakistani city”, Friday, 16 Oct. 2009 14:52 UK). The footage are showing fast-driving ambulance and several people lifting out dead bodies.

These striking live images on the spot is exactly what TV can especially present to audiences. Compare to other media, TV reports have this privilege because of its sound recording and footage giving audiences visible, clearly, and detailed information.

  • China Daily (Online)

China Daily is a prominent Chinese daily newspaper, which launched its online version since Dec. 1995.

It is also the only Chinese national English newspaper at present. The target audiences of China daily are not only the Chinese but also people from other countries who concerns about China.

As its specialty, China Daily concentrate less on propaganda news, and about the way it reports, is more international and for the people who concerns about China’s future.

The Pakistan issue under China Daily’s report not only  informed the facts, like 15 death in the attack of gunmen and car bomb(“Pakistan police targeted as attacks kill 15”, Agencies, 2009-10-15 13:36), but also Chinese government’s attitude to the attack(“Beijing urged to do more to help with terror fight”, ,Zhang haizhou and Zhangxin, 2009-10-16 07:14).

In part of “fact” reporting, China Daily represent the characters of online media, too.

Online news, due to internet’s advantage in terms of using multiple forms to present a story, always imply multimedia giving audiences information as vivid as possible, such as picture, slide show, footage.

China Daily online put a number of pictures as slide show and a video on interviewing Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani (“Beijing urged to do more”, 2009-10-16 10:34)

  • The Guardian ( Newspapers )

The Guardian is a British newspaper which achieve a great reputation as a broadsheet. As I think, it always write the stories in an  appealing way. And as a newspaper, the Guardian newspaper construct a story neatly and orderly.

In the issue of Pakistan, from 15 Oct to 17 Oct, three continuing stories about Pakistan attack and US bill aid were taken in the international pages. The reorganised information about the attack in a way looking more dramatic and attractive.


  • Media agenda (How the story is moved on)

According to the agenda-setting theory of Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw introduced in 1972, the media agenda is the set of issues addressed by media sources and the public agenda which are issues the public consider important.

However, to different audiences, media agenda differs. Which means how the story is moved on, is directly decided by who is the audience.

For instance, the audience of BBC news is more international than China Daily, in other words, China Daily concerns more national audience than BBC news. So China daily reported what Beijing’s (Chinese government) stand to Pakistan attack on 16 Oct.

Meanwhile, owing to British media’s common characteristic – a large amount of reports about American politics – the Guardian also had a big story on American aid will raise tension between Pakistan’s prime minister and the generals, and also between Taliban and Pakistani government.(“US plays down aid conditions in move to placate Pakistan generals: Declaration to tackle imperialism concerns: Statement will clarify sovereignty fears”, Declan Walsh, 15 Oct. )

In another aspects, these three media platform presented stories differently.

To TV(BBC news), the stories are more detailed than online and print media.  Even a small movement can be a TV report, for example, on 17 Oct from BBC news, about 2,000 families fled from the tribal area of South Waziristan(“Thousands flee South Waziristan”, Alix Kroeger, 17 Oct).

Online media (China Daily) have a undoubted advantage of speed of information and convenience of publishing. During three days, 12 stories were published  on China Daily’s website. Even the number change of death toll can be written up as a story.  In other words, the stories were moved along by many consecutive small steps.

While, stories on print media (the Guardian) were made in another style. As print media cannot renew the story as quickly as the online does, the Guardian wrote depth stories about this issue. The style of its stories is more like a dance, doing gorgeous dance moves by every steps.

  • Sources (who are interviewed, where does information come from)

The main  source of the fact from these three media are quite the same. For instance, their information dominantly from Pakistan police, officials, government  and some witnesses. And of course, most of the facts are from news agencies, like the Reuters.

The differences among them are that the source of issue’s details and opinions.

BBC news has special correspondents in Pakistan, so they always gain the details from them.

The Guardian, interviewed several experts, such as Intelligence analyst(”Deadly attack on police station increases turmoil as Pakistan prepares Taliban raid”, The Guardian, 17 Oct), a Lahore-based military expert(“Gun and bomb attacks on police kill 28 people as relentless militant campaign rocks Pakistan”, the Guardian, 16 Oct).

China Daily had their source specially from Pakistani Prime Minster Yousuf Raza Gilani who also interviewed exclusively. This source is more official and political compare to others.

Which is very notable that, the Guardian, as I consider, is the best story teller among these three outlets. On 15 Oct, the Guardian chose the US aid bill making the tension between Pakistan’s civilian and militant leaders as angle of story, which is very controversial and  dramatic. On 16 Oct, the purpose of Taliban’s attack that was told in the story is quite interesting and attractive. “They are working together to challenge the Pakistani state. They want the war to be fought in the cities rather than allowing the state to take it to Waziristan.” Dr Hasan Askari Rizivi, a Lahore-based military expert told the Guardian.

  • forms of expression (space given, airtime.etc)

Because TV, newspaper and online media are diversity, the forms of their expressions distinguish greatly from each others. While as I consider, online media has multi-media techniques to display story, and surely they have more ways to display stories.

TV airtime of three stories from BBC news are about three minutes. Expect from shooting videos, in order to point out where were the attacks happened in Pakistan, BBC news also showed a map of Pakistan with explanation of host.

And the Guardian take three days from International pages for Pakistan’s attack, which are about 500 to 700 words for each.

China Daily has 12 stories and an extra interview video lasted eight minutes. The space of the story is really flexible, because of there is actually no “space” for online journalists.


In my opinion, the stories from BBC news, the Guardians and China Daily all have their own styles in terms of telling and displaying.

BBC news had the vivid video on the spot, the sounds and images that showing the chaos of people after attack are indescribably by words. In addition, the multiple ways it presented the facts were also applied in online media, such as using graphics to illustrate the places of every Pakistani suicide bombs and attacks.

The Guardian is absolutely the best story teller. The three stories are full of controversial facts and opinions which draw great attentions from audiences. To my own reading experience, these three stories are more attractive than China Daily. Because China Daily’s stories, it is more like a plain report than a fascinating story.

But meanwhile, the Guardian are definitely slower than other two, this is also why they always can write great stories to make people spend money on buying a real newspaper rather than reading online.

And the online media always is the fastest. The story can write at any time, any place, and publish in one second. However, the online story probably can not as interesting as the newspapers in order to publish the information firstly.

A Briton was sentenced to death in China, according to BBC news.

Actually, this story had been told since May 26 on BBC.

The period of this issue is noticeably longer than ordinary ones. As I consider, in one aspect, because the Briton was appealing again and again to Chinese court,  which delayed the final sentence’s process. Also in another aspect, in my opinion, it is also because of British government’s engagement in this special issue, trying to hover with Chinese government.

But, which is very obviously that, there probably no chance for this Briton not to be sentenced to death.

As he was arrested for possessing 4 kilo heroin, which definitely should be sentenced to death in Chinese law. The interesting thing is about the dispute about whether this Briton is mental-ill or not, which may influence the result of the judgment.

In British’s media, Chinese government was blamed for not permitting any mental examinations for this Briton.

While, in Chinese media, the fact that this man is mentally ill was not agreed. There is a law expert in China said it only can be identified by Chinese judiciary system but not any others’ words.

If this Briton was sentenced to death, he would be the first Briton sentenced to death in China.